Surfing in the Wake of Colonization: Growth, Globalization, and Politicization

Since your first Blogpost of the semester, our class has covered a lot of historical territory (literally and figuratively speaking). This second Blogpost is designed to encourage you to think more fully about certain aspects of that history, and to view these various times, trajectories, and transformations in a new and different light. It is also aimed to invite you to think visually a bit, something you will be doing soon for your first Middle Stakes writing of the semester (due roughly a week-and-a-half from now). For this Blogpost, then, you will bridge the past and the present, and think historically and visually, by completing the following two steps:

1) Pick two historical topics covered since our last Blog that you think are interesting/important. You may choose from the following list, subjects which you may want/need to narrow a bit in order to have something thoughtful to say about them: Alexander Hume Ford, the Outrigger Club, George Freeth, Duke Kahanamoku, the Hui Nalu Club, Walter Dillingham, May Rindge, the Royal Hawaiian (or Moana Hotel), Henry Huntington, Tom Blake, Jock Sutherland, the Brotherhood of Eternal Love, and the South China Sea Surf Club.

2) Write at least one robust paragraph about both of the historical topics you choose from the list above (so, two paragraphs minimum). In each paragraph, you should explore the meaning and broader significance of your subject, and draw some conclusions about it in terms of the history of surfing. To do so, you must offer: a) A quotation that somehow encapsulates and addresses your subject. You should not only find and present this quote, but somehow use and interrogate it in your discussion. b) An image or video that represents your subject. You can offer us this simply by providing a link. Then, here again, you should tell us what is notable about that image, and discuss how/why it illustrates key issues related to your topic(s) and its role in the history of surfing.

23 thoughts on “Surfing in the Wake of Colonization: Growth, Globalization, and Politicization

  1. 1.) George Freeth was born in Honolulu in 1883. His mother was Hawaiian and his father was Irish. His uncle spiked his interested in surfing and he took it up quickly. His uncle as the story goes, gave him a Hawaiian long board known as an olo. He became the best surfer around in a short period of time, known for riding the waves on an angle rather than straight to the beaches. He was known across the island for his out of this world surfing skills and he embraced his Hawaiian roots.
    Alexander Hume Ford was born in South Carolina and hails from a very wealth family. He was short with a stocky build and enjoyed traveling. He went to Russia and China before reaching Hawaii in 1907. When he tried surfing he fell in love. He spent all of his free time riding with Freeth. It is said that Ford was amazed by Freeth and looked up to him immensely.

    2.) I believe these two men have a significance to surfing in general because they were the light at the end of the tunnel so to speak. Locals began to see Ford out on the water and people began to change the way they lived their lives. Surfing had almost disappeared by the time Ford was on a board, now that people were seeing his enjoyment from surfing they were interested. In 1907 Charmian London claimed that “a fleet of young kanaka surf-boarders were boobing around Freeth.”
    Freeth played a larger more important role in bringing surfing back to life. Freeth was the beginning of the domino effect for surfing. He turned Ford to surfing as well as London, locals noticed them surfing and took to the water. Both Ford and Freeth began to write about the surf lifestyle. Honolulu’s newspaper claimed that Freeth had the largest impact on surfing.

  2. 1. Duke Kahanamoku was a famous surfer that popularized the sport. He was born in 1890, and went on the become one of the most famous surfers to ever live. He went on to win five gold medals for swimming in the olympics. In the image provided, you can see Duke at the olympics. This is significant because he was one of the first people of color, and Hawaiian people, to ever compete at the olympics in swimming. He went on to star in several movies, as his popularity continued to grow.

    2. Tom Blake was a surfer who really popularized the sport in California. He is credited with bringing the sport over to California and making it a nation wide phenomenon. He made better surfboards, as he made them more lightweight and added a fin to his. He made the sport of surfing much more accessible by doing this. Not only that, but he wrote a a book about surfing which many people read, and afterwards, felt more inspired to surf themselves. In the picture, you can see Tom Blake with a surfboard. This shows what his own boards looked like compared to more older designs.

  3. Duke Kahanamoku was born in the 1890s and is known as the father of modern surfing. During the 19th century, Christian missionaries almost wiped out surfing and only the locals surfed, and Duke Kahanamoku changed that. Kahanamoku wasn’t just a surfer and he did all kinds of water activities including swimming and even won Olympic medals. Kahanamoku was traveling to teach his famous ‘Kahanamoku kick’ and during his visit to Australia he brought the sport of surfing. As Duke Kahanamoku’s Olympic career continued, surfing was starting to become a global sport all thanks to him. George Freeth was born in 1883 to a Hawaiian mother and an Irish father. Growing up, Freeth was always in the water, swimming and diving, and became a master surfer. During his childhood surfing was still a Polynesian tradition but Freeth took it on. Multiple writers came to Hawaii to learn how to surf and to write about their experiences. George Freeth taught Alexander Humme Ford and Jack London how to surf and wanted to show the world his dedication to the surf. Freeth traveled to California where he brought surfing to life there. Freeth showed the world water sports as well as became a life guard to protect and enforce water safety.

    The two men discussed above both brought surfing to life in different places, as different as their motives were and led to the history of surfing. Duke Kahanamoku, known as the father of surfing because he showed it to Australia on his olympic adventures. Kahanamoku brought a large significance to the expansion to the sport and he’s responsible for the rebirth of surfing. ( A Photo of Kahanamoku with his iconic surfboard) Duke Kahanamoku’s photo with his surfboard represents how a surfer did not need a fancy surfboard to enjoy the surf, just a chunk of wood. Kahanamoku brought that idea with him through the history of his surf adventure. George Freeth had a large part in bringing the sport around the world. When Freeth was growing up, surfing was only practiced by the locals and Freeth brought the sport to California. A quote on Freeth’s experience in California, “He was a one-man tourist attraction. He gave surfing and diving demonstrations, and quickly elevated surfing’s place in the popular consciousness.” (Nausbam) This quote shows how helpful Freeth was and how he wanted to bring attention to the world of surfing.

    The Forgotten Surf Legend Who Died in a Flu Pandemic – Sports Stories (
    Duke Kahanamoku
    The extraordinary surfing life of Duke Kahanamoku (

  4. 1.) In 1901 the first hotel in Waikiki was construsted by a wealthy Honolulu landowner, Walter Chamberlain Peacock. This new resort was named “the Moana” an it brought in lots of attraction. The hotel was built at the dawn of the 20th century, bringing new tourist and new comers to Hawaii. The Hawaii locals didn’t like the American expansion on their land and unfortunately still struggle with this today. Americans have turned this sacred island into a tourist supermarket, and continue to change the island to their own. Duke Kahanamoku was a Hawaiian surf legend that deserves the credit of being one of the first surfers and teaching others the sport. He was born in 1890, turned the ocean into his playground to become the icon he is. He won five gold medals for swimming in the olympics. At this time it was very rare to see someone of color to perform in the Olympics, duke had very prestige technique.

    2.) The two topics I decided to pick have a significance to the history of surfing and Hawaii. Duke was role model for many, teaches kids and adults to master the craft and to assure the ocean can be a fun place if you’re carful. He also gave locals a piece of hope being one of the only colored men to perform in the Olympics at such a time. The Moana is historically important to Hawaii, showing when the island stuttered to popularize and gain business. The remembrance of “The Moana” is important to locals who want to look back on the earlier days before colonization>

  5. 1) I think that George Freeth is very interesting. The reason is that he is considered to be the father of lifeguarding. Since lifeguarding is a big thing nowadays considering that a lot of people swim and surf. Lifeguards play a huge role in keeping people safe from the ocean while allowing the people to enjoy themselves. He was also known for being the best surfer for a period of time.
    Duke Kahanamoku is probably the most interesting. The reason is he was an all around amazing person. He accomplished so many things in his lifetime that an average person would never be able to do. He was in the Olympics five times and won three gold medals, he was a sheriff for 25 years, he was an amazing surfer, and he was native to Hawaii.
    2) The subject that George Freeth brought upon the world is extremely significant. This is lifeguarding. Without Freeth’s invention of lifeguarding, many people would have went out into the ocean and wouldn’t have made it back to shore if something went wrong. Due to his idea, many people felt safe going out into the ocean and surfing and swimming became more popular as the safety increased due to lifeguards. Freeth states that lifeguards must be “at one with the water”. This means they need to understand the ocean so that they can save lives.
    Duke Kahanamoku was very important in the surfing culture. He spread the idea of surfing all over the world. Not only that, but he was a very adventurous person. He competed in the Olympics five times and won three gold medals. He was the building blocks for the future of surfing and was called the father of surfing as we know it today. He states, “I have no doubt the ancient Hawaiians used every stroke we know and perhaps had better swimming form than we’ll ever have.” This quote by Duke shows how the ancient and modern Hawai’ians were the stepping stones for Duke. Then it was Dukes turn to spread this knowledge to the rest of the world.

  6. In 1901, the first major hotel opened up at Waikiki known as the Moana Hotel. It was new and filled with luxuries like various private areas and electronics which overall helped tourism infrastructure. Not only was the Moana Hotel the first of its kind, but it also largely impacted tourists and their ideas of surfing. Tourists coming to this hotel were originally hesitant over the surfing industry but eventually came to loving it. Page 37 announces that “the Moana quickly began advertising surfing as a new sport for tourists.” The link shows an image of travelers at the Moana Hotel enjoying time on the beach and in the water during the 1920s and how much more popular it quickly became and changed the way of tourism.

    Duke Kahanamoku is well known as the “father” of modern surfing. He was mentored by the other great surfer George Freeth and eventually continued on his legacy after his death. Not only was Duke an excellent surfer, but his swimming was way above average as well as he ended up winning many Olympic medals and breaking world records, even though it wasn’t always believed that he could. Duke also traveled to other beach towns as well like Florida and Atlantic City to help out with surfing there, too. Page 44 states that “Duke became the public image of the surfer-literally, a poster boy for Waikiki tourism-and more broadly, of a new figure called the ‘waterman'”. Duke Kahanamoku did so much for anything done in the water and is definitely a legend in the surfing world. The image in the link also shows a statue that honors his legacy located in Oahu.

  7. 1) Alexander Hume Ford was an editor, photographer, playwright, and perhaps most importantly, the founder of the Hawaii Outrigger Canoe Club. One of Hawaii’s most popular surfing areas had become increasingly inaccessible due to the hotels and other real estate which had been built. Surfing in Hawaii was coming to a near extinction in the early 1900s. Ford was obsessed with the sport and admired what it meant to the Hawaiian people. In 1908, “Ford petitioned Queen Liliuokalani for use of a tract of land on Waikiki to popularize old Hawaiian water sports and to provide a place to surf for the children of the mauka, the people who lived in the hills and had no seaside of their own” (Florida Surf Museum, 2021). Ford was able to make surfing popular again. The link below shows Ford with children who are getting ready to surf. His effort to bring back surfing is what helped future generations to continue to enjoy the sport and without his work, surfing would never be the same.

    2) Duke Kahanamoku is known as the father of “modern” surfing. He was an Olympian swimmer, surfer, and eventually movie star. He was a star athlete who even invented a new type of swimming technique. Duke became one of the best surfers of all time and used his swimming abilities to succeed in the water. Being a dark-skinned athlete in the early 1900’s was very difficult; however, Duke paved his way into record books and became a legend. In the early 1900’s, surfing was dying off in Hawaii. “However, Duke was in constant contact with the water. He would swim, surf, dive and explore the multiple underwater spots of the island” (Surfer Today, 2021). Duke would be one of the key members in the revival of surfing. He met with other influential people in the revival of surfing such as Alexander Hume Ford. There was even a statue built in his memory located in Honolulu to forever remember what he accomplished in his legacy. The link below shows the statue of Duke.

  8. George Freeth was born in Honolulu, Hawaii in 1833. His father was an Irish man who married a a Hawaiian woman. He grabs more of my attention because of his dedication to surfing at such a young age. He had taught himself to surf in Waikiki and was known for not only surfing straight ahead, but for learning to ride the wave at an angle. Although he was a famous surfer, he made a living as a lifeguard full time, and this is a situation very similar to Duke Kahanamoku.

    Duke had soon become the “father” of modern surfing, with a family of royal Hawaiian lineage. He was the literal public image for surfing, as he was on many posters and ads regarding the stoke of surfing. He looked up to Freeth as an inspiration, but soon to be friend and mentor. They are very similar because, although very skillful and well known surfers, they had to make money to survive on their own. Duke had originally dropped out of high school to earn his money. He continued to work but eventually was a part of the U.S. Olympic swimming team, which led to more fame and travel, but aside from the experience, he was not making enough money to be well off on his own, so he had become Sheriff, he had kept this job for 20 years.

  9. Duke Kahanamoku is known by many names: father of surfing, Olympic gold medalist swimmer, hero, movie star, sheriff, and an American treasure. Although Duke was a man of many professions, he is most well known for his impact on the world of surfing. Duke was born in Hawaii where he became very fond of surfing and eventually re-introduced the sport as a modern activity. Surfing was a dying sport, however, Duke was able to revive the sport when he began surfing in the United States. Having always been known as an Olympic swimmer, many had looked up to Duke and began to surf. The connection that Duke had with the water was unmatched. Having grown up on some of the best beaches in the world, his relationship with the waves grew stronger and fonder. Duke once stated that “Out of the water, I am nothing.” I believe that this statement truly does suit his character and that it also brings a powerful message. Duke was devoted to the water, and that no amount of fame, money, or recognition could make him lose sight of that. Surfing is more than just looking cool in his eyes, there is a deeper meaning that not everyone understands.

    Half Hawaiian and Half Irish. George Freeth became one of the most well-known surfers in history. Freeth was always fascinated by his Hawaiian roots, so when he first learned of surfing, he was hooked. Freeth quickly became one of the best surfers that anyone had seen in a very long time. Not only was he one of the forefathers of modern surfing, but he also is known for the invention of lifeguarding. Today I do not believe many would dare to swim on an unsupervised beach due to the many risks. Lifeguards are responsible for saving the lives of thousands of people every year, and this is all thanks to Freeth. One of Freeth’s other accomplishments is bringing the sport of surfing to Ireland. Having been half Irish, many people of Irish descent look up to Freeth and his accomplishments. He is credited with bringing modern surf culture to this country, and it is now known as one of the best surfing spots in the world. The legacy of George Freeth will always be relevant thanks to the amazing ideas and culture he cultivated.

  10. 1) Duke Kahanamoku’s journey around the world was very important to the history of surfing. The effort he put into putting both Hawaii and surfing on the map was incredible. After winning multiple gold medals for swimming in the Olympics which no doubt helped him get recognition for his home country of Hawaii, he then went on to travel the world, performing swimming exhibitions, as well as bringing some of the surfing culture to wherever he happened to be visiting at the time.
    (Duke Kahanamoku is the Father of Surfing on YouTube if that does not work)
    This video is an excellent example of how Duke spread surfing culture throughout the world. One of the highlights of the video is how he brought surfing to Australia. I think that this shows just how influential of a man the Duke really was, as surfing is now one of the staple sports in Australia. The Duke really helped ensure that surfing culture was not lost, and the the rest of the world would grow to be mesmerized and enjoy the sport as much as he and many other Hawaiians did.

    2) The Royal Hawaiian Hotel brought publicity to Hawaii that would be a huge part of the modernization and industrialization of the islands. It was a big tourist destination for those who were willing to make the trip across the Pacific, and the advertisements and posters for the hotel used surfing as a big attraction. In the book “A World in The Curl” it states, “It was thus no accident that the Moana was right next to Canoes, Waikiki’s most popular surf break. Canoes then and now is one of the best places in the world to catch your first wave, with long, gentle rides. The Moana quickly began advertising surfing as a new sport for tourists”. This quote from the book shows how important the sport of surfing was to the Hawaiian Islands, as well as how important the hotel was in spreading the surf culture to foreigners and tourists. Without the hotel, the sport would be confined to those who live on the islands, and it would really struggle to gain any traction in international play.

  11. 1. Duke Kahanamoku is not only surfer legend but also a gold medalist swimmer in his time. He is known as the father of surfing and his life has so much more value than his incredible accolades in and on the water. Duke introduced the world his sport and to the Hawai’ian way of life. More specifically a way of being in the world that is still alive and relevant to this day. Born in Honolulu Duke was taught to appreciate and respect values such as integrity and harmony. With open arms he would welcome extend the Aloha spirit and his ideal with people all around the world. For example Duke once said, “The best surfer out there is the one having the most fun.” This is just simply one of the many reasons why people loved him as a person and makes it easy to see why he was such a big deal to his community.

    2. George Freeth was born in 1883 in Hawaii, being European and part native. When he was younger he grew up beside Waikiki Beach Honolulu. In the time surfing was still in the begging stages and was still obscure to many. For generations it had been suppressed by missionaries and colonizers as weird and meaningless and honestly at first only the natives would play in the water. But Freeth was a great swimmer and diver in a place that was famous for producing great swimmers and divers. But, most importantly he was an incredible surfer. What is also incredible is that he is credited with bringing surfing back to his country of Ireland. He became was a life guard and swimming instructor to therefor continue to pass on his knowledge and skill and to provide safety to the swimmers and surfers on his beach.The legacy of George Freeth is super incredible and I found it was super awesome how passionate he was about taking surfing to the next level.

  12. 1. An important character in the history of surfing is George Freeth. After the idea of swimming in the ocean became popular amongst Americans a well known lifeguard, George Freeth attempted surfing. He was able to master it with help of his knowledge of swimming and is widely known as the first white man to master the sport of surfing. After this news got out, surfing started taking its roots in many areas along the east and west coasts and was even at one point known as the white man’s sport.
    Another important person in surf history is Duke Kahanamoku, “The Duke”. The Duke was an incredible athlete born in August of 1890 and was a Native Hawaiian. Duke was an extremely talented surfer which translated heavily over to his swimming ability. Duke swam for the US in the olympics and won three gold medals and changed the freestyle swim technique forever. This is why people considered him the best freestyle swimmer for several years. Using the popularity that surrounded him from competing in the olympics, he used his platform to show Americans surfing.

    2. Duke Kahanamoku was able to advertise surfing very easily from being such a great swimmer and talented athlete. The simple fact that a Native Hawaiian was coming out to America to compete in swimming and easily beating a lot of the swimmers got a lot of people looking at Duke. Not only did they look at him as a gold medalist, or a hawaiian, but they looked at him as this talented athlete. Therefore when he would endorse surfing people automatically were drawn to the challenge. In “World in the Curl the author says this about Duke, “…known as the father of modern surfing: Duke Kahanamoku. Duke became the public image of the surfer–literally, a poster boy for Waikiki tourism– and, more broadly, of a new figure called the ‘waterman’.”
    This image shows how relevant Duke was at the time. He was used as an advertisement for Waikiki tourism and just the idea of him surfing attracted many people to bothe vacation to Hawaiian Islands, and try surfing. Advertisements like these of Duke is was really helped with the spread of surf culture
    In terms of reviving surfing, George Freeth was very appreciated by Duke Kahanamoku and Duke even continued Freeth’s legacy for decades after his death. George Freeth was able to create a great image for potential surfers across America. It was no longer seen as a Native Hawaiian sport; it was expanded along the coastal cities in the US and became a sport for many of the white people who lived near the water. Peter Westwick speaks about how the newly founded surfing lifestyles of California and Hawaii owe thanks to Freeth, “The permanent California surf community stems from our friend George Freeth to whom Hawaiian and Californian surfing owe much.”
    This video shows a tribute for George Freeth and how Californians appreciate Freeth and feel as if they owe him for part of the permanent rebirth of surfing that’s now popular all over the world.

  13. 1)The two interesting things that were covered this week were the Brotherhood of Eternal Love and Duke Kahanamoku. The Brotherhood of Eternal Love especially because they would smuggle narcotics within the hollow boards and distribute them for a high price. At one point federal police could not keep track of the flow of narcotics until the Brotherhood used a film as a front for drugs. According to the book “An interagency drug task force, the following year recommended that ‘all surfboards coming in from Hawaii should be broken’” (pg 176). Reading further on that they mainly focused on just the fins and fin box. It’s crazy to think that hiding drugs in surfboards were ad that there is a significant relationship between surfing and the use of drugs.

    Duke Kahanamoku was born in 1890 in Honolulu who had royal Hawaiian linage but was the son of an American man. Being the eldest of five brothers all grew up in the surf culture becoming fantastic surfers. Spending most of his days by the water later on becoming an Olympic swimmer and well-known surfer.

    2. A group of Laguna Beach surfers also known as the Brotherhood of Eternal Love was an important part of the surf culture. Surfers played a crucial role in creating the drug culture in the 60s. According to the book surfer Allan Weisbecker left the North Shore to visit the source of Moroccan Hash saying “You could buy 40 bucks’ worth and sell it for $1000 stateside” and “You didn’t have to figure out you could make some serious money doing that” (pg 172). Many surfers became addicted to these drugs and kept these habits by transporting hollow surfboards that were hollow keeping the stash inside. Allowing the surfers to take drugs when they wanted to. These psychedelic drugs were believed to awaken the spiritual side of them being closer to the natural world such as surfing a wave.
    The pictures show the members of the Brotherhood Eternal Love who were captured for their crime of creating an enterprise that grew into a global drug-smuggling ring that was worth about 200 million dollars and was responsible for half of the pot and LSD in the United States. Allowing surfers to get a hold of the drugs and spread the stash.

    Duke Kahanamoku became the public image of a typical surfer being called “waterman”. Freeth being a mentor to Duke he was able to become a better surfer because of him as well as surfing with the local kids. He was first known for being an impressive swimmer shattering records even making it into the Olympics. He gave surfing lessons in many beach towns around the world showing that surfing was being discovered because Duke was easygoing and had a photogenic smile as well as an incredible physical appearance. These qualities made him a natural ambassador for surfing. Duke also took swimming tours not only to spread the stoke but also to pay for his lifestyle.×506+0+0/resize/840×472!/quality/90/?
    Above is a picture of Duke Kahanamoku with his ten-foot board that he made himself when he was younger which was easy for him to catch waves. Since demonstrating surf and swim lessons he did need another job which at the time was lifeguarding. Helping many tourists how to surf properly and show the enjoyment of it. Making the ocean feel like a safe environment to be in.

  14. One extremely influential person on the industrialization of Hawaii and surfing to the mainland was Duke Kahanamoku. He is considered to be the father of surfing and was a pioneer for freestyle swimming. He had a huge impact on the surfing world because he made the average American on the mainland to go out and try surfing. He did this by going around the east and west coast, along with Australia and gave them surfing lessons and demonstrations that would make the average person to go to Hawaii and surf there. By doing this he brought more tourists to Hawaii that was starting to become a tourist spot. He was able to transform the way people looked at surfing and made it something that anyone can learn. After surfing the internet, I found this quote that shows Duke’s influence on water life in America, “I accidentally introduced another kind of surfing [lifesaving] to California. Good sometimes comes from the worst of tragedies. Boards became standard equipment on the emergency rescue trucks as well as at the towers.” I thought this quote was perfect because it describes how much of a influence he has had on surfing and the way people interacted with the ocean in general. Furthermore, the fact that he just accidentally introduces the mainland to a huge advancement in life saving that is still used at my local beaches today shows off his personality. The link below is picture that shows off Duke’s water skills as he was able to get a girl to get on his shoulder while in the middle of a wave and encourages people to want to go out and try surfing for themselves. He makes it look so easy that it makes others feel that they can as well.

    Another important piece of the history of surfing and Hawaii is the making of the Moana Hotel and Royal Hawaiian. These two hotels had a huge impact on the landscape of Hawaii and the industrialization of Hawaii. To make these two hotels, they had dredge massive amounts of sand onto the coast for them to be able to erect it and it completely changed Honolulu into a tourist destination. Before these two hotels were made there was really no place for tourists to stay at. Surfing was a big reason why these hotels were made because they gave people a reason to go to Hawaii and things to do while they were there. Duke encouraged people to go and try surfing and the hotels were places for people to stay when they wanted to try it out. With these hotels in Honolulu, it made surfing a more mainstream activity to do. The link below is a picture of both hotels and shows off how they constructed these two hotels in the forest and how they led the way for the tourist industry in Hawaii.

  15. The Outrigger club was founded in 1908 by Ford in order to help get people around Hawaii to participate in watersports, especially the youth. It developed fast and by 1915 had 1,200 members and a very long waiting list. Although it was a club for the youth and Hawaiians it became a club for wealthy Caucasians.
    The Hui Nalu Club was almost the polar opposite of the outrigger club when it came to race and ethnicity. Their dues were only set at 1 dollar per year compared to the outriggers 5. They had no clubhouse and instead met underneath a tree in front of the Moana Hotel. It was founded by Duke, and Freeth as a way to set records by having an official club. These two clubs had racial tensions because most of their club was Hawaiian.
    The Outrigger club was important to surfing culture because it was formed as a way to get youth and Hawaiians into surfing, the goal was to grow the sport of surfing and create a community that allows people to interact with each other over the love of the sport. Although the way the club turned out seemed to show how whites were integrating themselves into the Hawaiian surfing culture. This can be shown through the quote “A majority of the club was white, and it became a place for elites to hang out and surf. These members had one distinctive characteristic: almost all of them were Caucasian. Despite Ford’s stated goal, the Outrigger became a club for white elites, including such power brokers as Sanford Dole, who had helped overthrow the queen and became territorial governor after annexation, and Lorrin A. Thurston, likewise a descendant of missionaries, agitator against the monarchy, and publisher of the Honolulu Advertiser (and a major tourism booster).”
    The Hui Nalu Club was a major influence in surfing culture because it was a club that welcomed all people. Many of these were Hawaiian and included some of the fastest swimmers in the world. It was portrayed as an underdog club, but rather had some of the best surfers in the world. Along with this, it helped to put Hawaiians in a place of competition for the all white outrigger club. This can best be shown through the quote “Ford was right, in a way: white elites had already appropriated surfing, for the tourist industry and for their own recreation. It didn’t get more elite in Hawaii than a Dole, Castle, or Thurston. Surfers, however, were not always on the outside looking in. Hui Nalu was not an underdog surf club, but rather one of the most accomplished swim teams in the United States, with elite members and support.”

  16. 1) Duke Kahanamoku is know as the father of surfing. He was born in Waikiki, Hawaii in 1890. He was a Hawaiian surfer and swimmer who won three olympic gold medals for the United States. He’s often considered as the greatest open water and freestyle swimmer in the world. He also widely know for developing the flutter kick. Duke was one of the best athletes of his time and you can compare him to todays Kelly Slater and Micheal Phelps. His excellent swimming abilities made it all that much easier for him in the water when surfing. He broke multiple olympic records while also saving the sport of surfing in Hawaii. He grew the sport of surfing like no other and people of all ages wanted to learn to surf. He traveled to many different places to push and teach the art of surfing. Kahanamoku’s most famous quote is “Out of the water, I am nothing”. It goes to show how much surfing really was apart of his lifestyle. Surfing was 24/7 for him and he left behind a great legacy. This link is a video of a interview Duke did before a surf competition.

    2) George Freeth was born in Honolulu in 1883 of Royal Hawaiian and Irish ancestry. He was know as the First Surfer in the United States. As a kid he was created with reviving the lost Polynesian art of surfing while standing on a board. Freeth growing up quickly mastered the art of suffering out suffering his competitors. Henry E. Huntington was amazed at Freeth’s surfing and swimming abilities. He later asked George to come to Redondo Beach in 1907 to help promote the building of “The largest saltwater plunge in the world”. people of all ages came to watch as they were amazed by Freeth’s abilities. It was something people have never seen before. He trained and taught many other notiable surfers like Jack London and Alexander Ford. He wasn’t just a surfer he became the first official life guard on the pacific coast. He has been quoted saying “You must be at one with the water”.He saved many lives ins career and received “The United States Life Saving Corps Gold Medal.” Here is a picture of Freeth’s Statue.

  17. The Outrigger Canoe Club, founded by Alexander Hume Ford in 1908, was founded with the intention of bringing the Hawaiian beach, and Hawaiian water sports, to the “boy of limited means.” Essentially, Ford envisioned growing the popularity of Hawaiian water sports, including surfing, among young white males. Ford’s intention might have, on paper, seemed to be a righteous one, but I cannot shake the feeling that there was a deeper, money-driven motive behind it. The Outrigger Canoe Club, even with it’s righteous reason for development, led to an aristocratic club of rich white men with a “long waiting list.” This event impacted surfing in a greater way than just to familiarize young males with surfing. This event, and its soon to be prejudice and elitism, led to a fundamental clash in Hawaiian water sports.

    Following the formation of the Outrigger Canoe Club was the formation of its soon to be rival, the Hui Nalu club. The Hui Value club was founded by The Duke, Ken Winter, and Knute Cottrell subsequently after the Outrigger Canoe Club lost vision of its initial goal. The Hui Nalu club lowered due prices for membership and membership was based on election only. The Hui Nalu club did not have the most righteous reasons for formation either, as it seems it was more so to help The Duke’s popularity. However, the impact the formation of these two clubs had on surfing was this; it created competition between two parties, which in-turn helped surfing, and water sports gain more popularity.

    Competition between the two clubs helped amass popularity for water sports, and more importantly in this case, surfing, because it led to the clubs marketing themselves to a broader market. The Hui Nalu club started to bring their swimming teams to the mainland to, as the author in the “World in the Curl” states, “to compete against swimmers from the Los Angeles Athletic Club and San Fransisco’s Olympic Club.” This illustrates just how competitive these clubs made water sports. Furthermore, with competition in any facet, when competitors compete, their desire to be better than their competition normally does not stop at the event they are competing in. What I mean by this is that, competition in swimming and the Hui Nalu being better swimmers than other clubs most likely led the Hui Nalu’s competition wanting to compete in other things than just swimming. Surfing subsequently would gain more attention, because members from other clubs would want to out-match them in other events than just swimming, especially if club members felt on par with the Hui Nalu club. This competition is water sports would last centuries, even to this day, where in the link provided, we can see that even up to August 20th, 2018 the Outrigger Canoe Club and the Hui Nalu club are still competing against each other in water sports.

  18. 1. Duke Kahanamoku, the father of “modern” surfing, was born in 1890 in Honolulu who had royal Hawaiian lineage but was the son of an American man. Being the eldest of five brothers all grew up in the surf culture becoming fantastic surfers. Spending most of his days by the water later on becoming an Olympic swimmer and well-known surfer. Duke swam for the US in the olympics and won three gold medals and changed the freestyle swim technique forever. This is why people considered him the best freestyle swimmer for several years. Using the popularity that surrounded him from competing in the olympics, he used his platform to show Americans surfing. Duke was able to revive the sport when he began surfing in the United States. Having always been known as an Olympic swimmer, many had looked up to Duke and began to surf. The connection that Duke had with the water was unlike anything anyone’s ever seen. George Freeth was born in 1883 to a Hawaiian mother and an Irish father. Growing up, Freeth was always in the water, swimming and diving, and became a master surfer. During his childhood surfing was still a Polynesian tradition but Freeth took it on. Multiple writers came to Hawaii to learn how to surf and explain their experiences. George Freeth taught Alexander Humme Ford and Jack London how to surf, Freeth wanted to show the world his dedication to the surf. Freeth traveled to California where he brought surfing to life there. Freeth showed the world water sports as well as became a life guard to protect and enforce water safety. While known as being one of the best surfers at the time, he is considered to be the father of lifeguarding. Since lifeguarding is a big thing nowadays considering that a lot of people swim and surf. Lifeguards are the ones keeping people safe while out in the ocean enjoying themselves

    2. A group of Laguna Beach surfers also known as the Brotherhood of Eternal Love played an important role in shaping the surfing culture. In the 60’s these surfers began forming a drug culture around the sport of surfing. “You could buy 40 bucks’ worth and sell it for $1000 stateside” and “You didn’t have to figure out you could make some serious money doing that.” (pg 172) According to the book surfer Allan Weisbecker. Many surfers became addicted to these drugs and kept up the bad habits by transporting drugs in hollow surfboards. These drugs were believed to be a way to awaken the spiritual side of them being closer to the natural world such as surfing a wave. The picture below shows members of the Brotherhood of Eternal Love who were wanted for their crime of creating an enterprise that morphed into a global drug-smuggling ring. This drug running “organization” made a business worth about 200 million dollars and was responsible for the majority of Marijuana and LSD being brought into the United States. This allowed surfers to get a hold of the drugs and increase their ability to spiritually find “the stoke”.

  19. George Freeth and Alexander Hume Ford were two historic people in the world of surfing because of what each of them brought to the table. George Freeth was born in Honolulu in 1833 and had an Irish father who was a captain and a half-Hawaiian mother. George became so intrigued with his Hawaiian side of the family that he sought out the culture for himself. Growing up he was surrounded with pictures and paintings of people surfing and it became all he thought about until his uncle gave him his old Hawaiian longboard. Freeth soon later taught himself how to surf and became one of the best surfers in Waikiki and even became the surfer to angle across the wave instead of riding straight in. Alexander Hume Ford was born into a very wealthy family who had a plantation in South Carolina. Ford was a writer for New York magazines and traveled a lot because he was an adventures person. Ford eventually made his way to Hawaii in 1907 and was so amazed by the surfing culture, especially George Freeth and taught himself how to surf.

    The thing George Freeth and Alexander Hume Ford had in common was that both individuals wanted to keep surfing alive. It wasn’t just a sport or hobby to these men; surfing was something more than that. George Freeth helped keep surfing and swimming safer by making sure people knew how important it was to be able to swim. “Redondo Plunge, which opened in 1909 as the largest saltwater swimming complex in the world, and where Freeth led swimming lessons for countless newcomers.” Most historic surfing figures grew up knowing how to swim which helped them surf, but a lot of newbies didn’t and Freeth encouraged swimming lessons which made the ocean much safer than it was before. If people were dying in the ocean because they couldn’t swim then surfing at some point would have died out because of the fear of the ocean, in my opinion Freeth making the water safer helped keep the sport surfing alive.

    Alexander Hume Ford played an important role in keep surfing alive because he continuously wrote about it and told newcomers about the sport. For example, he took out Jack London surfing after telling him how amazing the surfing is, Ford determined to show London how great surfing was that he kept his word and showed up to show London how to surf. After London tried the sport and watched Freeth surf in amazement, he went back and wrote all about it. “Freeth inspired Ford and London, who in turn promoted the surf lifestyle in their writing.” Since both these men promoted surfing, others in other countries started flocking to Hawaii to learn the new sport that these two respected men back at home were writing about. Writing about surfing kept the sport alive because it helped peak others interest after reading all about it.

  20. 1) George Freeth was an American surfer, known at his time for being the first “white” surfer, though this nomenclature was technically inaccurate due to this native Hawaiian descent. He helped to introduce the sport to Americans, and became known as “the man who could walk on water,” and his works in Redondo Beach as a tourist attraction helped the sport to take a hold in California, where it is still hugely popular today. Jack London, who met Freeth in California, wrote that “his heels are winged, and in them is the swiftness of the sea”. This quote highlights the extraordinaire of Freeth, which in turn reveals just why he was able to popularize the sport of surfing- he was not just skilled in the sport, but a prodigy in it, and he awed those who watched him, even someone like Jack London who was already familiar with the sport. Freeth’s work in Redondo helped not only to bring in money for the beach, but to spread knowledge of surfing in California, and also helped bring awareness to Hawaii and the surfing scene there as well. He was also hugely important to bringing water safety to the forefront of the culture, and to popularize the taking of swimming safety classes. His works in swimming safety earned him a Congressional Gold Medal, making him at the time the 5th person to have ever received one since the first was issued in 1776. Attached is an image of Freeth with this medal ( His impact in the world of water safety is similarly felt today, as he helped to develop the life-guarding tools and tips we still use today such as the rule to swim laterally against rip currents as opposed to fighting against them. Techniques such have this are still widely spread and used today, and thus the impact of George Freeth and his passion for surfing and water safety still impacts the world to this day.

    2) The Royal Hawaiian was one of the first hotels establish in Wakiki, and was built along with other hotels to help promote travel to Hawaii by wealthy Americans- this lead to the popularization of Hawaii as a vacation and resort getaway. The hotel has been used as a filming location in movies and film. In the world of surfing, its impact was that it allowed for more tourism to Hawaii, which was largely not visited before the hotel’s being built. The hotel brought a new wave of life to Hawaii, and with it brought a new wave of people who surfed and/or became interested in surfing. The Beachboys of Wakiki, who gave surf lessons in the area, helped bring surfing to the hotel, and thus the people who visited it, by offering surf lessons there. Similarly there is the Moana hotel, the first hotel built in Wakiki, frequented by Duke Kahanamoku, another important American surfing figure. The hotel was “a favorite stomping ground for Kahanamoku’s famed group, dubbed the Waikiki Beach Boys,” who was aforementioned brought surf lessons to the hotels they visited, again helping to bring the sport to to the forefront of the culture, particularly the culture of those who visited these hotels: wealthy Americans. This image (;aggregationId=101&albumid=101&filter=7&ff=378313509) is of the modern day surfing lessons still offered at the Royal Hawaiian, showing that the impact of the Beach Boys and their sport did not fade into history, but is still just as, if not more, popular today.

  21. 1.) In the 1890’s Hawaii lost political independence. Surfing was slowly decreasing because all of the surfers were now dying and not many kids were picking it back up. George Freeth eventually wanted to learn how to surf when he saw a picture of his ancestors surfing. He was finally provided wit ha surfboard and taught himself how to surf. Freeth played a huge role in the emergence of modern surfing. He was the lead surfer at Waikiki, was one of the few that rode standing up, and was one of the first to angle across the wave.
    Alexander Hume Ford was not from Hawaii. He was from a wealthy family in South Carolina. He was a writer and traveled all around the world. In 1907 he tried out surfing in Hawaii and it became something he loved to do. He had made his own board with a wood plan board and would spend hours in the ocean teaching himself. It only took him a couple of months to be able to ride the waves alongside the Hawaiians and Freeth.
    2.) Geroge Freeth was a huge influence on people in the surfing community. Since surfing in Hawaii was not as common during the 1890’s he took it upon himself to promote surfing. He was self taught and discovered tips and tricks that noone had yet to discover. “Freeth was hired to showcase his surfing talents, demonstrate the latest rescue training, and in the process, promote travel to California’s beaches as well as his home in Hawaii”(Sieber). It was also know that when he was promoting this he drew the attention of very large crowds and surfing slowly became more popular again. The first link below have many photos of Freeth and some more facts on his life.
    Alexander Ford was also a huge influence on the rebirth of surfing around the world because of the promotions he did as well. He was also known for helping on of the best surfers Jack London. He helped teach him how to surf. Ford, London, and Freeth were all hooked on surfing and made others hooked on it as well. “She characterized him as a “genius” at “pioneering and promoting,” who “swears he is going to make this island’s pastime (surfing) one of the most popular in the world.” This quote was taken from the article below (2nd link), and this was how London’s wife described Ford while he was convincing him to go out and surf. Ford had such a love for surfing and wanted others to experience the greatness. The link below also has pictures and facts about Ford.

  22. 1) Duke Kahanamoku was born on August 24, 1890. He was a Native Hawaiian competition swimmer from August 24, 1890 – January 22, 1968, who has received five-time Olympic medalist in swimming. “Duke” was not a title name or his nickname, it was given to him after his father. He grew up on the outskirts of Waikiki, and spent his youth as a bronzed boy. As time pass by he started developed his surfing and swimming skills which lead to him becoming a Olympic swimmer, and a famous Surfer. He preferred to use a traditional surfboard which was made of a koa tree, was 16 feet long, and weighed 114 pounds. In his later career, he often use smaller boards, but always preferred wooden boards. On August 11, 1911 Kahanamoku was timed at 55.4 seconds on the 100 yards freestyle beating the world record by 4.6 seconds. Since that day on Duke not only beat the world record, but also helped popularized the ancient Hawaiian sport of surfing.

  23. Tomas Edward Blake Also Known as “Tom Blake”, was considered to be one of the most influential surfers on history, and a Key figure in transforming surfing from a regional Hawaiian to a nationally popular sport. Blake was born in Milwaukee, Wisconsin and graduated from Washburn High School. In Detroit in 1920, he encountered the legendary Hawaiian Surfer Duke Kahanamoku and was invited to come over to the State of Hawaiian. Blake and Kahanamoku later became good friends. Before meeting Duke, Blake attempted to ride a wave in 1921 on an old board he found while working at the Santa Monica Swim Club. In his reports, he was wiped out badly and waited several years to try again. when his interest returned back he was eager to learn how to surf to the point he went to seek out Kahanamoku. “Surfing leads you through life, especially when you’re young and with hope in your heart.” For the next thirty years, Blake divided his time between Hawaii and the mainland. In September 1927, Blake and his friend Sam Reid organized, and won, the first Pacific Coast Surfing Championship. Blake was the first to experiment with making a better surfboards, using lightweight, shortening, and adding fins to his surfboard. In 1930, he entered the Hawaiian Surfboard padding Championships and overwhelming defeated his opponents using a light-weighted board he designed, and set 8 new records. The people there said it wasn’t fair and he wasn’t allow to compete using his designed surfboard. Back on the Mainland he was considered the Founder of California surf culture and the designer of a better surfboard.

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