Since your first Blogpost of the semester, our class has covered a lot of historical territory (literally and figuratively speaking). This second Blogpost is designed to encourage you to think more about key aspects of that history, and to view it in a new and different light. It is also aimed to invite you to think visually a bit, something you will be doing soon for your first Middle Stakes writing of the semester (due the following week). For this Blogpost, then, you will bridge the past and the present, and think historically and visually, by doing the following:
1) Pick two historical topics covered since our last Blog that you think are interesting/important. You may choose from the following list, subjects which you may want/need to narrow a bit in order to have something thoughtful to say about them: Alexander Hume Ford, the Outrigger Club, Duke Kahanamoku, the Hui Nalu Club, the “Massie affair,” surfing & Apartheid, Tom Carroll, California’s “surf Nazis”, Aboriginal surfers, the Brotherhood of Eternal Love, South China Sea Surf Club, Michael February, or Surfers 4 Peace.
2) Write at least one robust paragraph about both of the historical topics you choose (so, two paragraphs minimum). In each paragraph, you should explore the meaning and broader significance of your subject, and draw some conclusions about it in terms of the history of surfing. To do so, you must offer: a) A quotation that somehow encapsulates and addresses your subject. You should not only find and present this quote, but somehow use and interrogate it in your discussion. b) An image or video that represents your subject. You can offer us this simply by providing a link. Then, here again, you should tell us what is notable about that image, and discuss how/why it illustrates key issues related to your topic(s) and its role in the history of surfing.
Ultimately, “surf nazis” created discrimination against African-Americans. I believe in the saying, “actions speak louder than words”. Therefore, when Miki Dora painted swastikas on his board he deeply hurt people, and then continued to inflict pain with his harsh words. Furthermore, the term itself has a surface and deeper meaning that shaped surfing in California. First, on the surface level, “surf nazis became a popular term to describe hard-core, dedicated surfers” (Westwick 168). When someone reads that definition, one could not imagine the destruction they actually did. On the deeper side, “surf nazis” were products of their environment, and creating a stigma of racism in the California surf community. When leaders of the community are preaching racism to disciplines, the racism only spread. Furthermore, the surfing community in Hawaii was completely opposite, and also oppressed. Also, surfing was created as a spiritual lifestyle to bring joy and human connection. “Surf nazis” destroyed the original purpose of surfing with their racism. Thus, limited chances of African-American to try or start surfing, and today we still see a lack of diversity in surfing. The picture illustrates the confidence and authority “surf nazis” carried with them by how they are hanging outside the car window. You also see the men doing the Hitler hand-gesture showing they support his ideals. Along with the men are many surfboards. Anyone who sees the picture or men would associate surfing with those racist ideals. Clearly, their “stoke” is derived off power knowing they rule the surf. Hawaiians’ “stoke” came from the feeling of excitement surfing brought. Because of “surf nazis”, African-Americans never got to feel the same stoke, instead only fear. http://www.surfnazi.com/surf-nazi-history/?surf-nazi-history
Surfing & Apartheid are two terms that were seperated from eachother. Specifically, Aparthied separated blacks from surfing. Again, these laws went against what the original surfers made surfing about- men and women coming together, no matter what. But, leading up to Aparthied blacks were being excluded from international sports; furthering dehumanizing them and reinforcing global racism. However, surfing was hope, and “surfing remained one of the few unsanctioned sports, and hence offered an international stage for South African athletes” (Westwick 165). But once again, Apartheid stripped blacks from the opportunity to surf. Like “surf nazis”, Apartheid deminished black surfer lineage before it even had a chance to start. The picture reinforces how Apartheid restricted opportunuties and a lifestyle. The boy and woman are literally staring at what they cannot have. They are almost in a way looking at dreams and memories that would have came with the beach and surfing, never happened because of Apartheid law. When I look at the picture I ask myself, “how many black South Africans could have been champion surfers but never go to? How many families missed out on beach memories? Would there be more black surfers if Apartheid did not exist?”. These are questions we may not be able to answer, but can only make sure surfing is never separated or withheld from anyone.
Tom Carroll is a Australian pro surfer that has been voted one of the top 10 greatest surfers of all time and he has been crowned World Champion twice. Today he is 58 years old,Tom Carroll also starred in his own tv series called “Storm Surfers.” Something many people may not know is that Tom Carroll suffered from drug addiction in the early 2,000s. He became addicted to methamphetamine also known as “ice.” His surfing career then ended and he said he hit “rock bottom” as his marriage ended and he lost his relationships he had with his kids. Surfing was Tom’s life he won the Australian Junior Title in 1978, the Pro Juniors in 1977 and 1980, also the 1983 and1984 ASP World Tour, and the 1987 Pipe Masters. Tom Carroll has an interview with Occy and he says in it, “Sharks aren’t out there to kill or eat humans. They’re just out to eat their food source and that’s definitely not humans.” In his Interview he talks about Sharks, his drug addiction and SUPs with the raging bull. https://www.theinertia.com/surf/tom-carroll-talks-about-shark-attacks-drug-addiction-and-stand-up-paddling/
Duke Kahanamoku was an extraordinary surfer. He was born in August 1890 in Honolulu Hawaii and he is referred to as “The Duke” which is considered to be the father of modern surfing. He didn’t just surf though he was in the movie industry, politics, and business life. Duke never left the water he was always in some type of contact with it whether that meant swimming, surfing, diving, etc. He beat the 100 yard freestyle world record by 4.6 seconds for swimming. He became a teacher as he traveled the world to teach other swimmers about his famous Kahanamoku Kick.” Duke was the first person to be inducted into both the Surfing Hall of Fame and the Swimming Hall of Fame. One famous saying Duke was known for was, “I swim all the year round at Honolulu. The water doesn’t change much.” Everyone who knew Duke knew that it didn’t matter what was going on he would always be in the water.
Tom Carroll is a world renowned surfer who over the course of his illustrious fifteen year career was able to capture back to back world titles (‘83, ‘84). He is also well known throughout the world not just for surfing but for his work in civil rights matters. He made his mark on the surfing world when he decided to protest the South African leg of the world tour in order to bring justice and shed light on the horrendous apartheid laws and acts that were being comitted in that part of the world. When asked on his decision to boycott this part of the tour, Tom said “If you were a tennis player, for example, and you competed in South Africa, you were looked upon as somebody supporting apartheid. I felt a great sense of responsibility around that as a human. And what I was feeling was becoming more intensified. I was just this kid — only 23, maybe 24, quite young, and quite naive. But that was probably on my side because I didn’t have to think too much” (Tom Carroll, 2018). His actions really helped share his message with the world and introduce these injustices to a population of people who may have never even heard of these issues. Many people nowadays especially those in professional sports decide to use their national and in some cases global platforms to help shed light on injustices and other ongoing issues in our world that people may not know about or may not be talking about. One famous case that’s currently happening is the NFL’s blackballing of Colin Kaepernick, now who’s to say that athletes would of ever began to use their platforms to express their opinions if not for Tom Carroll’s protest back in 1985. The link below helps to emulate just how terrible some of these apartheid laws were back then in South Africa. Those laws prevented almost all of those who were not of white skin tone from going to the beach and even from surfing and thus those laws repressed those not of the white race. https://thumbs-prod.si-cdn.com/CkDYFGUAQMLFtHyCHw4mDL5tOTM=/fit-in/1072×0/https://public-media.si-cdn.com/filer/bc/63/bc639352-6112-48b1-befe-3b4185124a2e/segregatedbeach2web.jpg
The brotherhood of Eternal Love was this group of surfers and drug advocates from Orange County, CA. They eventually earned the nickname “Hippy Mafia”, due to their laid back styles and heavy use, distribution, and manufacturing of LSD, hashish, and other psychedelic drugs. These events were huge in the surfing community due to the fact that the majority of the brotherhoods members were surfers from Orange County, which for those who don’t know is one of the biggest surf counties in California and it’s also home to Huntington Beach also known as “Surf City”. The Brotherhood began with this ideology where they all just wanted to “drop-out” of society and start anew on an island somewhere in order to get away from the injustices and unfair treatment in which they were all experiencing in the United States. A large portion of the group’s followers were in agreement on moving to Hawaii and going somewhere away from civilization and to live off the land in their own `utopia. “To us, the island represented freedom”, says Edward Padilla, a former member of the group from its early days. The group started to run into trouble with the law when they decided to team up with a radical left organization known as “Weather Underground”, they made a deal with this organization to get help moving one of their members named, Timothy Leary who was on the run after escaping jail after he was sentenced to five years for marijuana possession. The Brotherhood needed help moving him from the US to Algeria, for the assistance in this The Brotherhood paid Weather Underground a fee of $25,000. The group eventually saw its demise when the US government did a raid on August 5, 1972 of their compounds in California, Oregon, and Maui, which led to the arrest of a huge percentage of their members with some managing to escape. The last known member to be arrested wasn’t caught until 2009. The photo attached below can help you to see what their members looked like and liked to do, you can see them with a wide array of surfboards all designed with trippy and colorful abstract pieces on them. https://belhistory.weebly.com/uploads/1/9/0/7/19079917/7787123.jpg?734
1) Surfing and apartheid
The significance of surfing and apartheid exists in the history of South Africa as it served as a pillar for the surfing community on a global scale. Surfing began the debate of apartheid and one by one, there were several surfers began to boycott the sport due to these laws. A quote by Oliver Tambo states, “Apartheid either is or is not. And it must not be”. This quote is relevant to both the past and present. Apartheid was present in the history of surfing and while it has majorly ended, it should not be present at all. The image that I chose to represent this topic is one set in South Africa before apartheid was put to an end. It is an image of a woman holding a sign at a protest that says “Free South Africa”. This image represents some of the challenges that existed at the time of apartheid and reveals that the people there were treated unfairly and had to endure segregation on a daily basis.
2) Tom Carroll
Tom Carroll is a significant figure in the surfing world because he was the first surfer to boycott participating in surfing competitions and stand up to apartheid in the history of South Africa. This was a shocking act performed by Carroll as he was an Australian man who faced judgement from his own country for this. A quote from the Former Australian Prime Minister Bob Hawke states, “There is no better example in the history of Australian sport where a champion has been prepared to put principles so manifestly in front of his or her own interests.” This quote does a great job of explaining how Tom’s actions were selfless and how standing up for something he believed in was more important than possibly winning another surfing title. The image I chose is one of Carroll in the water smiling on his board. This photo shows his pure enjoyment in the water which he put aside to stand up for those who were enduring apartheid.
My first historical topic that I would like to narrow in on is Duke Kahanamoku. Kahanamoku is a very interesting man, that shaped aquatics sports into what they are today. Being a full Hawaiian, Duke had to overcome many obstacles. One of these obstacles includes racism. Duke’s prime was in a time where Hawaii was turned into a resort area, and had a major port. Hawaiians were ridiculed against on their own island by the whites that vacationed/lived there. Duke was also a phenomenal surfer, and an Olympic swimmer. He held a record time in freestyle in the Olympics, where he won gold. Later on in his career, Duke was introduced to Hollywood where he acted in a few films. He was truly an icon for the surfing community. He was nominated into the surfing hall of fame for shaping the sport, and getting through his adversities.
My second historical topic I would like to talk about is the “surf Nazi’s.” These guys are interesting because of the harsh topic they promoted. A lot of it was to rebel against societal standards. They were being punks. The surf Nazi’s had swastikas and other racist emblems on there boards.
Duke Kahanamoku was the guy that shaped surfing into what it is today. In broader terms, he supported and grew the idea of all races being able to surf. He was the first mainstream surfer of his time and had incredible skills. He inspired many surfers within the community and deserves his spot in the hall of fame. Duke had once said “Don’t talk – keep it in your heart.” He was a humble man that many surfers aspired to be like.
The “surf Nazi’s” hold a part of surf history for many reasons. They were a notorious group of people who had incredible surfing skills. They were a racist group that had swastikas on their boards and promoted the same views as Germany in World War Two. A known head within their community is Miki Dora. He once said “I have a black man who wakes me up in the morning, gives me my orange juice, gives me my robe, carries my board to the beach. Everybody ought to live in Africa. I have a coolie for everything I do. Everyone should own a coolie.” This is just an example of things Dora would say.
The importance behind Michael February was more than just surfing. Apartheid rules, whihc stopped African Americans from surfing, went away when Nelson Mandela was elected president in South Africa but it didn’t mean African Americans were still being discriminated against during these times. February went through the struggles of an African American surfer and is considered a breakthrough athlete for the sport of surfing. February went through and won a surf competition in South Africa, allowing him to break into the World Surfing League. This allowed February to become an inspiration for all black surfers. This allowed many more African American’s to feel encouraged to go out and surf to compete. Suring and apartheid had a huge effect even carrying over in today’s world. During apartheid the prohibition of African American’s it was hard for them to buy real estate close to the beach. This made it difficult for the African AMerican population to go to the beach and learn how to swim. This deals with surfing because you cannot surf without knowing how to swim.
Michael February could be seen as the Jackie Robinson of surfing because he paved the pathway for younger non-white surfers. Sometimes it just takes one person to break the barrier to give others the confidence to take part in an act. Surfing today is still a predominantly white sport but by seeing a non-white surfer win a compettion, it gives people confidence. The world surfing league talks about the importance of February’s win and describing the significance as, “Michael February’s arrival on the Championship Tour is serving as an inspiration for black surfers who are taking to the lineups in far greater numbers than ever before and being encouraged to do so.” Setting aside the win, by just having February’s presence, it gave inspiration worldwide. https://www.zigzag.co.za/wp-content/uploads/2018/08/february_m3250tahiti18cestari_mm.jpg Also, the importance of apartheid is shown throughout the entire world especially in South Africa. Many non-whites wanted to surf but the government made it nearly impossible. “In 1960 white politicians discovered that “land” as defined in apartheid laws did not include anything below the high-tide line, so they passed an amendment extending apartheid to include the beach and ocean out to three miles and dispatched lifeguards and police to enforce the segregation.” This describes that the government enforced segregtaion even out in the ocean where people could’ve been using apartheid to escape segregation out in the ocean. https://www.thoughtco.com/thmb/5xmw2WAfFHjaMpur-vSmDlSVXec=/768×0/filters:no_upscale():max_bytes(150000):strip_icc()/white-area-2659675-59b3100c9abed50011b39be7-5b22e2b0ff1b7800377e8a3e.jpg
1) Tom Carroll
Tom Carroll was a two time World Champion surfer. He became surfings first millionaire when he signed his contract with Quiksilver in 1989. He is also famous for his stance against apartheid in 1985. “Despite the fact that the UN had denounced apartheid more than a decade earlier, the country was still in the throes of a caustic race battle. But that year, Tom Curren, Martin Potter, Cheyne Horan, and Tom Carroll made their stance known when they boycotted the only South African events on the tour at the time.” Today Tom has a show on the Discovery Channel called “Storm Surfers.” He also appeared in the movie “Storm Surfers 3D.” https://www.theinertia.com/surf/disruptors-tom-carrolls-boycott-of-surfing-in-apartheid-era-south-africa-was-one-of-surfings-most-important-moments/
2) Duke Kahanamoku
The Duke was a native Hawaiian. He is one of the most recognizable figures in surfing history. Beyond surfing, he was an Olympic gold medal winning swimmer. He was know as a waterman. He traveled the world spreading the sport of surfing as he traveled. Duke even came to Atlantic City.In 1912, a well-known Olympic swimmer visited Atlantic City. “That swimmer was Hawaiian native Duke Kahanamoku, the surfing legend. When Kahanamoku came to the East Coast, he brought with him the sport of surfing. That was the start of a unique culture that lives on today in the lives and minds of every East Coast surfer.”https://www.atlanticcitynj.com/atlantic-city-stories/details.aspx?story=Surfing-the-Waves-with-Duke-at-Atlantic-City
The aboriginal surfers in Australia had a tough time keeping surfing as their own. When white colonists made their way to Australia, almost immediately they were forcing natives inland and suppressing their culture. Obviously being moved so far away from the water on top of being restricted from entering the water or touching the beach, there was really no way to surf unless they could find a beach that was not patrolled by the white colonists, “So while some Aboriginals surfed, they were the exception.” (Westwick & Neushul 167). These laws that forbid the natives from using the water and beaches continued until the early 1970s and unfortunately that devastated the aboriginal population, leaving them to be the minority in their homeland just as what happened with the Hawaiian natives and surfers. The aboriginals that survived and thrived until the laws were abolished however were able to surf again but still, to this day, continue to be oppressed and discriminated against. The link I have provided is to an article from 2016 about an indigenous surfing competition. The image is of three aboriginal men with tribal paints on their bodies as well as holding a surfboard with the aboriginal flag on it. This event is known as the Australian Indigenous Surfing Titles and is begun with a traditional smoking ceremony.
Surfing and Apartheid
I chose to also write about surfing and apartheid because I feel it is connected to the aboriginal surfers in addition to the population in South Africa that was directly affected by these laws. The apartheid laws were put in place to legally separate and discriminate any minority but specifically blacks in south Africa. Just as the white colonists in Australia had pushed the natives inland and prohibited them from participating in normal daily tasks. For the majority, these laws affected workplace, schools, banks, grocery stores, and even bathrooms but the beach and ocean were also places that black people and those of minorities were prohibited from going. As the video we watched in class showed, the native south African people were only allowed on the beach areas if they were dressed in their ceremonial clothes and there to entertain the white people, not for their own enjoyment. This even affected the pro surfers who would travel across the globe to compete in the pro tour. Surfing had become so whitewashed by the 1970’s that famous Hawaiian surfers that would travel to South Africa had trouble finding hotels to stay and would have to obtain permits to compete in their own sport. “Eddie Aikau visited for a contest in 1972 and found himself barred from “white” hotels and beaches” (Westwick & Neushul 165).
These laws were in place for 46 years and were not abolished until 1994. The video I chose to include wit this topic is of Sal Masekela and his experience surfing in South Africa after the apartheid laws were abolished, and it shows how even though these laws have been abolished for 26 years, minorities are still being discriminated against even in surfing. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=efRe8bMH8Og
On the Historical Growth, Globalization, and Politicization of Surfing
1) This notion of surf nazi’s in California was a way for racist americans to isolate surfing; to make surfing a means of superiority, or to give it a power that it inherently doesn’t have. Simply, it was a way for white Americans to take control of surfing and make it their own. Effectively, making a borrowed activity their own activity by trying to change its true origin to a point of racism and separatism. In the long strange tale of California’s surf nazi’s, Daniel Duane writes “That sea wall swastika in Santa Cruz, after all, wasn’t just a skull-and-crossbones any more than the genocidal racism it represented was a German import. Like Noll’s and Dora’s swastikas, and also the more recent swastikas and sieg-heils and Confederate flags throughout California, it was, rather, pus from a boil festering since the Anglo-American invasion of this glorious place.” In this quote, Duane tries to portray surf nazi’s and there actions of making the sea wall swastika as not only a do not enter sign to keep people out of the beaches, but as a death threat. This shows that these surf nazi’s were so engulfed in their own racism and entitlement that they actually believed surfing was their own right, even though surfung is not originally created in America, nor was it created by white people. It shows just how isolated some Americans really are and how they believe they own everything, and can’t grasp the concept that not everything revolves around their own beliefs and ideology. https://clubofthewaves.com/wp-content/uploads/surf-nazis-must-die.jpg
2)In South Africa, apartheid was how white’s tried to become the dominate race in every aspect of life ad they would even take it to an extreme where blacks or people of color for that matter could not be considered citizens of South Africa. Again, this is another example of racism not only being a social tension between races but a political tension as well. Although apartheid affected the lives of many blacks in almsot virtually every aspect of life it also affected surfing in South Africa as well. Apartheid would segregate the beaches and ocean which would make it so only whites could use the beaches and surf. If black people were to even set foot on the beaches they could be taken to prison or even killed. Fortunately Carrol, a pro surfer, would shed some light on aprtheid in South Africa and give some insight on how ugly the situation was. He would do this by giving up his chance of receiving his third world championship title in surfing. WHen asked why he didn’t go in 85 to compete he said the following “Because I had seen some really hideous things. It was pretty much daily, things that shocked me. There was this incredible separation in society. An ugly ability of the whites to get on a pedestal to stand high and look down upon the blacks. They took that kind of view when all I could see was horrendous suffering, constantly.” Through his actions a spotlight was shed on how messed up the situation was with apartheid and his actions make way for the abolishment of apartheid because it shows the people of South Africa that what they are going through is not normal and that they needed to fight for their rights. That isn’t to say it is only because of him that apartheid ends, as much of that work should be and is accreddited to Nelson Mandela and the people of South Africa. https://thumbs-prod.si-cdn.com/CkDYFGUAQMLFtHyCHw4mDL5tOTM=/fit-in/1072×0/https://public-media.si-cdn.com/filer/bc/63/bc639352-6112-48b1-befe-3b4185124a2e/segregatedbeach2web.jpg
Blog Number 2
Tom Carrol was a surfing champion who was born in South Wales, Australia in 1961. Tom Carrol got a lot of attention in 1985 for his protest against apartheid and racism in South Africa. Tom protested the ASP world tour in South Africa which cost his chance of winning his 3rd world title. This decision was very controversial in the surfing community and cost Tom Carroll a fine from the ASP. Tom did this to show his disgust and displeasure in the racist apartheid laws at the time in South Africa. An article on Carrol protest states “Continuing to compete in a surf contest where blacks were not allowed to enjoy the sand or ocean not only felt trivial, it felt repulsive”. The link below will take you to an interview with Tom Carrol and Sal Masekela where they talk about his protest in 1985, but during a very important time in anti-racist sports protests with the NFL black lives matter protest are going on at the time.
Michael February was an African American world champion surfer who grew up in South Africa. Growing up in South Africa he faced many racist hardships when trying out to paddle out to do what he loves. Despite growing up like this he still became a world champion and became an inspiration to many African American surfers. In an interview when asked he takes pride in the first African American in the top 34 rankings February states “If a young kid in South Africa has never seen a person of color surfing well or competing at a high level and they go, “He looks like me. I can do that,” then that’s sick. But I’d hope that I’d be able to get people of all shapes and sizes and colors psyched on surfing.” This shows how he takes pride in being an inspiration to other kids of color from his home country. The link below will bring you to a photograph of Michael February surfing in South America where a couple of years ago during apartheid he could be arrested for doing so.
The Brotherhood of Eternal Love was a group of surfers based out of southern California that were drug enthusiasts and also drug smugglers. Their main products of use and manufacturing/ distributing were LSD and hashish. The founders of the brotherhood took advantage of the increase in surf travel to smuggle drugs from one place to another. They began small, just smuggling marijuana back from Baja surf trips but eventually expanded into an elaborate drug smuggling system consisting of their own labs to make the signature “Orange Sunshine” LSD and secret bank accounts to stash the earnings. To successfully smuggle their drugs they would hollow out their surfboards and stash any kinds of drugs that they wanted into the empty space. This practice along with the large amount of brotherhood members in southern California “made Laguna the psychedelic drug capital of the world”(Westwick & Neushul 131). One of the main reasons they were so successful was because the government couldn’t believe that one of the most successful drug smuggling operations at the time was being run by a bunch of hippie surfers. Once they did however, they wanted all surfboards to be broken open at airports to ensure that no drugs were being smuggled. The link below brings you to their website which tells you everything you want to know and more about them.
The Hui Nalu Club was a surfing and waterman club that began in the early 1900s. Amongst its founding members were the Duke Kahanamoku, Knute Cottrell and Ken Winter. The club was founded for 2 main reasons. Firstly, to allow Duke to compete in professional swimming competitions he first needed to be part of an established club so Duke and the other founding members came up with this club. The second and more prominent reason was in response to the Outrigger canoe club. The Outrigger club was strictly for white surfers whereas the Hui Nalu was for anyone interested in joining the club. Thus the Hui Nalu consisted of a more diverse group of people including whites, native Hawaiians, Asisans, people of other races and cultures. The Hui Nalu also was made to be more affordable at $3 a year while the Outrigger Canoe club was a pricey $5 per year. Although these clubs were dissimilar ethically, they were very similar in regards to what they were about, “Outrigger and Hui Nalu hasd many things in common, stemming from the fact that both were as much about swimming and paddling as surfing” (Westwick & Neushul 131). The picture provided shows the early members of the Hui Nalu and you can see the racial diversity in the club unlike the Outrigger Canoe club.
Tom Carrol is a very important influence on the inclusion of various races to the predominantly white demographic of surfing. Tom Carrol prior to his involvement with anti-apartheid, was a well-known surfer who won the World Championship for surfing in 1983, and 1984. Therefore, his actions to not compete in the 1985 events in South Africa shocked the surfing community. Tom had a firm belief that “If you were a tennis player, for example, and you competed in South Africa, you were looked upon as somebody supporting apartheid.” (Tom Carroll, 2018). Due to this belief after his back to back championship wins he decided he was not going to compete in the South African section of the competition. By not competing in the competitions he allowed Tom Curren to overtake him and win the championship title. This title was the highest achievement in this sport and him throwing away his chance to make a stand against apartheid brought much more attention to the problem at hand. His support of the anti-apartheid movement even got him praise from one of the most notable leaders, Nelson Mandela. In the following link you can see an Interview with Tom Carroll where he discusses boycotting pro surfing to protest apartheid.
Being a “Surf Nazi” is typically used today to describe someone who is unconditionally devoted to surfing, but sadly that wasn’t always the case. The first connection was the first commercially produced surfboards in California that carried a swastika logo burnt into the tails. This brand was created and marketed in the 1930’s before Hitler warped the ideals that the Swastika initially stood for. This made a swastika a pretty normal sight to see in the California surf scene; after the holocaust the symbol stayed in the culture but drastically changed meaning. In the 1959 edition of “Search for Surf” it included a group of California in Nazi Storm Trooper uniforms surfing Flexie-Flyers in a storm drain while holding a Third Reich flag (Duane). This paints a very clear picture why the surfers in this area were exclusively white. Other races understandably associated the Swastikas with Nazi ideals and steered clear of interacting with those who parade the symbol around. Those who participated in the movement claimed that there was no prejudice behind the use of the symbol but simply that they would “paint a swastika on something for no other reason than to piss people off.” (Duane). Using this symbol and claiming that it had no prejudice behind it is nearly impossible. Being from California already makes the holocaust a touchy subject since their Model Compulsory Sterilization Law played a powerful part in shaping Germany’s Racial-Hygiene Laws. This influence on surfing in modern America is why the sport is predominantly white. In the following trailer you can see some clips of the surf culture in California in 1958. In one particular clip you see surfers cover themselves in a dye from a life jacket dye marker, as one of the narrators says it “made Manhattan Pier look like Hawaii”.
Tom Carroll was a pro surfer since back to 1977, winning the Australian Junior Title all the way to the ASP World Tour. He was even fortunate to sign to Quicksilver, and became the first millionaire surfer. One of the biggest reasons he is important is because he “boycotted contests there in 1985” because of racial issues that he was against. The issues were about how black people were not allowed to enjoy the beach and they aren’t allowed to surf because of their skin color. However, the surfing community did not take a like to it, and it made people start to talk. He addressed the issue later in interviews and here is one of them.
Duke Kahanamoku was one the first people to popularize surfing. Although he was an Olympic swimmer, he brought surfing to Oahu, Hawaii. He is an important figure because he brought surfing around again. But not only was he involved with acting and working at a gas station. He was a huge influence on young surfers. He said “The best surfer out there is the one having the most fun.” A lot of people looked up to him and he truly changed the world of surfing.
From the ’30s to the 80’s, the term surf nazi was a term quickly picked up popularity. In an attempt to make people mad, people would draw swasticas, wear uniforms, and act in ways that resembled nazis. “We’d paint a swastika on something for no other reason than to piss people off,” said Noll in Matt Warshaw’s “The History of Surfing”. Although a joke for surfers, it was and will forever be a very touchy subject to mess with. In the attached photo, surfers are seen making the nazi salute while driving with surfboards in the car. The way they are sitting & presenting themselves make it seem that it is indeed a joke for the surfers.
Commonly referred to as the “Father of surf”, Duke Kahanamoku quickly made a name for himself in the world of water sports. As a Hawaii native, he was raised on the water and picked up surfing pretty quickly. He then used his water skills to place him in the swimming competitions during the Olympics. Duke’s skills circled around water and he knew it. He once said, “Out of the water, I am nothing.” Although an incredible surfer and swimmer, he struggled during his life in a battle with racism. Setting multiple swimming records in the united states, Duke made a name for himself and his name became more and more well-known. In an article from 1913, his unique lifestyle growing up makes the main headlines and says, “as a boy dodged sharks for a sport”. BEsides that line being an eye-catcher, it also highlighted America’s fascination and attraction to the lifestyle of Hawaii.
The Hui Nalu Club of Hawaii is a very well recognized surf group. It was also looked at as the more “native” surf club of Hawaii back from when it all began. It started back in 1908 by the native Hawaiians as a form of retaliation from being excluded from Haole. Duke Kahanamoku was apart of the founders of the club and two other founders were apart of Haole. As stated in The World in the Curl, “The surf riders focused more on Hui Nalu because it meant the club of the waves”. To this day, the Hui Nalu Canoe Club is still around and still accepting members. The clubs visions for today are to come together as a family who shares and cares. Members today must understand and commit themselves to the vision and life of the Hui Nalu. In this picture, you will clearly see the togetherness of the club. Even though the photo might be over 100 years old. It still resembles to core values to the Hui Nalu Club.
The Outrigger Club was the competing surf club of Hawaii at the time. Only difference was that these were main white. Alexander Hume Ford wanted to open a club that would encourage the excited tourists the native water sports of Hawaii. In 1908, Ford negotiated a cheap 20 year lease on the land next to the Moana Hotel. With a little bit of work and addition of grass huts the permanent clubhouse for the Outrigger Club was born. “Dues are set at $5/year for young boys to make it possible for every kid with guts to live at least half the day fighting the surf” Ford said. By 1915, the club had 1200 members and an extensive waiting list. Most members were Caucasian, and the club became known for white elites. The club also had limited membership to males until 1926.
South China Sea Club. The South China Sea Club was a very interesting thing that took place during the Vietnam war. Personally, this time period is the most fascinating couple of years for American society, so this “club” is very cool to me. There were two and a half million soldiers held in Vietnam, and about a seventh of them, or 350,000, were from California. These people were also known as “Californians”. If you were called a Californian at the time, you were most likely a surfer. One of the only positive things about being in Vietnam at the time were the waves. The U.S soldiers were deployed on the coast facing the South China Sea. There are some really good surfing spots over there, and soon after the Californians stepped foot on that area, they found that out. A great few spots they surfed were in Cam Ranh Bay, Vung Tau, and Nha Trang. Surfing for soldiers got so big, that the military had to focus some of their attention on it. In “ The World In A Curl” (pg. 135), “ U.S. military poster several luck surfers to China beach and to Vung Tau’s Back Beach as lifeguards, where they served out their tour in safety and style—and showed what in-country surfing was all about.”
Thought this was an awesome clip below.
The Brotherhood of Eternal Love. This might be the most interesting thing I have learned about in a very long time. I love the 60’s and 70’s, and even more so of that time’s movements and groups. The creativity and exploration during those two decades was insane. The Brotherhood of Eternal Love was created in the early 60’s. It was an informal organization full of pretty much hippies. It included drug dealers, and even just psychedelic users. It was founded in Orange County California, by a man named John Griggs, who was also called “The Farmer”. He had such an impact as a leader, that when he passed in 1969, he was inducted into The High Times Counterculture Hall of Fame in 2011. There are so many rad stories, and so much information in general to tell about from this brotherhood, but there is not enough time or space to write everything. There were a few guys who sold a lot of Marijuana at first, then moved onto LSD, and then a lot of other drugs as well across the country, and even to other countries. These guys were some of the best and biggest drug dealers at the time, and it all originated through California itself, Laguna Beach specifically. Some big and important names from the brotherhood are Chuck Scott, Eddy “Roho”, Chuck Mundal, George Dumas, Buddy Morgan, or “The Joker”, Johny Gail, and David Neiva. Some of if not all of these guys surfed, some even surfing champions. These guys all played a crucial role in The Brotherhood of Eternal Love.
Tom Carroll is an important figure in the surfing culture. He was a pro surfer, winning the Australian Junior Title and the ASP World Tour. He even signed to Quicksilver and became the first millionaire surfer. He was the first surfer to boycott participating in surfing competitions and publicize his viewpoints about apartheid in South Africa. He wasn’t in favor of the racial issues that were going on. The issues were about how black people were not allowed to step foot on beaches all because of their skin color. After he boycotted, he faced judgment from his own country. “There is no better example in the history of Australian sport where a champion has been prepared to put principles so manifestly in front of his or her own interests” says former Australian Prime Minister Bob Hawke.
This article depicts in detail Tom Carroll’s boycott.
Duke Kahanamoku is considered to be the “father” of modern surfing. He was born in August 1890 in Honolulu Hawaii. He is easily one of the most famous figures in surfing history. He was known as a waterman because he never left the water. He was an Olympic gold medal winning swimmer that beat the 100-yard freestyle world record by 4.6 seconds. He became a teacher as he traveled the world to teach other swimmers about his famous “Kahanamoku Kick”, spreading the sport of surfing.
This website is all about Duke’s life and accomplishments. It goes into great depth and is an excellent source of information.
Duke Kahanamoku, a name in my eyes without enough recognition. “Out of the water, I am nothing” was said by Duke who is also known as “The Father of Modern Surfing” is very well credited in our readings but not enough worldwide. He was born in the very late years of the Kingdom of Hawaii and lived as a U.S. citizen. Duke did not have his uprising in surfing with ease, he dealt with numerous hardships like race, wealth, and much more. Duke was mistreated due to the pigment of his skin in various places he traveled to but he fought through it. Duke competed in the olympics for swimming, he was one of the most influential surfers to this date influencing wave riding in places like Australia, California, and even his home in Hawaii. Personally I feel people today do not know his name enough for all that he has done for the culture of surfing from battling issues with race, being an olympic gold medalists and only being employed by gas stations.
A long with Duke another name that goes slightly unnoticed is Tom Carroll. Carroll was a very famous surfer and is mostly known from his actions during the apartheid era. Apartheid was basically segregation, and at the time South Africa was being excluded in mass amounts of sporting events like surfing competitions. In April 1985, Carroll announced that he was not competing in a competition due to the mistreatment towards South Africa. Carroll was one of the few and first people to take a stand against segregation, and the exclusion of South Africa. The stand they took was a turning point in the surfing community, big name professional surfers taking a stand against segregation was a start for surfing for people of all races, and ethnicities. https://www.theinertia.com/surf/tom-carroll-on-boycotting-south-africas-asp-events-during-apartheid-i-just-wanted-to-step-up/ In this link Carroll talks about his viewpoint on apartheid, and when he took his stand against it. Carroll simply stated how he wanted to “take a stand” and that he did.
1) surfing and apartheid
apartheid was a social policy set in place in South Africa that discriminated against the non-white population. This naturally had a huge impact on the social diversity in the surfing culture surrounding south Africa. beaches were limited to white south Africans meaning surfing became a non-option for the native population of South Africa. many professional surfers protested competing in the sport due to the laws in South Africa. Tom Curren, Martin Potter, Cheyne Horan, and Tom Carroll are all notable Profesional surfers who chose to boycott of all South African surf competitions due to the apartheid laws in place. Racism in South Africa directly affecting the world not just cutting off an entire race of people from having beach access but to directly affecting carriers of professional surfers who took a stand for what was right.
2) Tom Carroll
Tom Carroll is a two-time world champion surfer (83′ and 84′) who also fought for civil rights. in 1985 the ASP tour was being held in South Africa and he felt repulsed that people were discriminated against and treated like lesser beings. His response was to boycott the tour, many others followed in his steps but not all in the surf community had tom’s sense of righteousness and he was hit with fines by the ASP. His stand ultimately ended his career as he never won another title after that.
1.) The Surf Nazi’s created a lot of racism and segregation from African Americans. They would not let African Americans surf with them or even let them near the beach. They would have them around just to amuse them. The Surf Nazi’s would wear german army uniforms, did the nazi salute, and spraypainted swastikas on the Malibu wall. “A few years later, surfer magazine juxtaposed dark skinned Hawaiian surfer Buttons Kaluhiokalani with a photo of a gorilla.” (Westwick 168) This shows how there was immense racism in the world at this time. People were very territorial at the time and did not want African Americans anywhere near their beach. This picture shows how they tried to keep their beaches separate. This has led to a lack of African American surfers in the world. https://www.sutori.com/story/black-female-surfing-in-south-africa–rwCvAzDa5ZzgHYufYkoDebKs
2.) Duke Kahanamoku was a very well known surfer and swimmer from Hawaii. He is a native Hawaiian who was born in 1890. “The single best known figure in modern surfing history is Duke Paoa Kahanamoku. Renowned for his athletic talents, Duke promoted both surfing and Hawai`i to the world.” He participated in four olympics in the span of 22 years. He won his first gold medal in the 1912 at the Stockholm Olympics. He made surfing a lot more popular and helped to globalize the sport.
1) Brotherhood of Eternal Love
The, “Hippie Mafia” was renowned at selling drugs to California from Hawaii through the mean of
Hollowing out surf board and putting in drugs like hash, marijuana, and LSD. There organization was know as, “The Brotherhood of Eternal Love”. There organization was created by the idea of Jack Hakman who hollowed out surf boards and put hashish and lsd in them. “ a group of Laguna Beach surfers raised this technique to the peak “. The group was from Orange County California; they were trying to create the, “psychedelic revolution”. Their schemes of smuggling drugs was brilliant to say the least, no one suspected at the time that surfers were able to handle and operate such a complex system of smuggling. Turning to different points in time, it was messed up finding out that you cannot drive through a chain linked fence and be okay. Reading about of John Gale lost his life after being chased by cartel and being ultimately decapitated by this fence he drove through was wild.
2) South China Sea Surf Club
Another interesting reading fact was about reading about the ,”south China Sea Surf Club”. Being a veteran myself and having my father serve in the Vietnam War it was crazy reading how these surfers or California in general where the most heavily recruited to serve overseas. That’s just wild, being that they were amazing swimmers and the U.S. Army recognized that and sent them to serve out the rest of their deployment as life guards at an R and R station. Goes to show that the white population was more privileged while the African Americans that made up ten percent of the combat troops also made up twenty percent of the casualties through the span of the Vietnam War. Surfing is still seen today as a white dominated sport which is crazy.
One historical topic I chose was the Hui nalu club or “Club of Waves”. The Hui Nalu club was a water sports club for anyone of any color. The significance behind this club is that it broke racial barriers that were starting to arise during the time, and it offered Duke kahanamoku a chance to have his swimming times recorded and recognized. In “The World in the Curl,” Westwick describes the main reason why Duke was apart of Hui Nalu, he states, “Duke and his supporters formed Hui Nalu to support the Hawaiian phenoms swimming campaign to show the world just how fast he could swim.”(Westwick. 65) This quote emulates Dukes passion for swimming and his hunger to make a name for himself and the club. Additionally, the photo below depicts Duke on the front cover of a book called “Waterman,” this is significant because Duke would never have gotten recognized if it weren’t for Hui Nalu. https://www.google.com/imgres?imgurl=https%3A%2F%2Fimages-na.ssl-images-amazon.com%2Fimages%2FI%2F81uKOxWe26L.jpg&imgrefurl=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.amazon.com%2FWaterman-Life-Times-Duke-Kahanamoku%2Fdp%2F0803254776&tbnid=E9et8pPRnLawQM&vet=12ahUKEwi7pJCZvsjnAhVPON8KHQStBskQMygWegQIARA9..i&docid=y4n9NveRkvtS1M&w=1771&h=2560&q=duke%20kahanamoku%20swimming&ved=2ahUKEwi7pJCZvsjnAhVPON8KHQStBskQMygWegQIARA9.
The second historical topic I chose was the Outrigger club. The outrigger club was a water sports club mainly honing in on surfing. Ford founded the club with a goal of allowing kids of any color to experience what it’s like to fight the surf. According to, “The World in the Curl,” Westwick describes Fords motive for starting this club. He states, “The development of private houses and hotels along waikiki was making the beach hard to reach; the outrigger aimed to make the beach accessible.” This goes to show that Ford had good intentions in mind and he was doing something positive for youth watersports. Lastly, the picture below captures Alexander Ford and a group of young kids preparing to go out in the water. This is significant because if the youth do not carry the torch, nobody will. url
(Link to 2nd paragraph)
By the end of the 19th century the idea of surfing had practically died out. Right as it seemed to be looking like a thing of the past, here comes Duke Kahanamoku to save the life of the sport. By the age of 21 he beat the 100 meter freestyle record by more than four second and his rise to fame had just begun. After winning several olympic medals he began to tour the world teaching his famous “Kahanamoku Kick”. All while winning medals, he was emerging as a great surfer. Duke is considered to be the father of modern surfing and many think he is the reason the sport was revived and is recognized as a global sport today. Duke will forever be studied as a legend in Hawaiian culture. He was inducted into both the surfing and swimming hall of fame and even was named the state of Hawaii Ambasador of Aloha.
Tom Carrorl is another major piece in surfing history. Most well known for boycotting surf competitions after winning two world championships and solidified himself as one of the best surfers ever. He was even given his own tv show called “Storm Surfers”. Drugs like cocaine were flying down the streets of every city in the world, and it was no different where Tom Carrol was. Drugs were readily available and cheap and everyone was getting hooked. Almost a decade after the end of his surfing career, Tom became addicted to ice. He would eventually ruin many relationships including the ones with his kids and wife. It was a long road ahead but after landing in rehab in 2006, he was eventually able to get clean and move on with his life. It looked as if there was no hope for Carrol as he was a daily user but after losing everything important to him, he had to turn his life around.
Tom Carroll is a professional surfer and he is a very important person in the surf community His importance is so prominent because he boycotted in 1985 after winning the World Surfing Championships. This was due to a lot of racism in the sport. He really made a stand and this was a huge moment in the community of surf. He would be fine harshly for this act although. He would never win another title and would have a long hard battles with drugs especially pills. Here is the article.
Duke Kahanamoku was an iconic figure in the surf world and its history. Aside from this he was also an olympic medalist, winning gold twice. Duke traveled the world teaching his famous “Kahanamoku kick.” Also promoting Hawaiian culture and the sport of surf. Duke is known to be the “Father of modern surfing” Here is the timeline of Duke’s life and all his accomplishment throughout his life.
Topics: Duke Kahanamoku and Surfing 4 Peace
Duke Kahanamoku was one of the especially interesting topics for me that we’ve covered recently. It baffled me to learn that he is basically considered the father of surfing and I was surprised that I’ve never learned about him before because he had some truly amazing accomplishments. He broke many olympic records for swimming and set two gold records in the 100m freestyle kick for the United States Olympic swim team in the 1920’s, then came back when he was 42 years old and competed again! I really enjoyed his story because Duke seems like such a humble person from small beginnings, and he did so many impactful things with his life such as being an actor, sheriff of honolulu, as well as being inducted into the surfing, swimming and olympic hall of fames respectively. He really set the bar for how a true surfer should be, and one of my favorite quotes from him is: “Just take your time- Wave comes.” Which can be interpreted in many ways, but I think it means that patience is the key to live, and a wave will always come that you might be able to ride
Video for Duke: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=p0P1Pi2GwVc
Surfing 4 Peace
This is a really interesting and potentially genius idea. Their main quote on the website is “People who surf together can live together” which is perfect because it literally gives everyone a chance to be a part of their community, and what better way to do it than surfing. This program has the potential to unite people of all types of cultures and nationalities. It’s much easier to find interest and respect someone when you all have surfing as a common passion. The link i provided goes to the actual website for Surfing 4 Peace and it shows little glimpses of the motivation, active endeavors, and future plans to advocate this company, and I really think that they have a great chance for success. They’re literally expanding freedom for some people in other countries, and helping to shed light on how much of a struggle it really is for other surfers around the world. It definitely constitutes some respect, and I wish all the members of the community and the founders of the company the best in their efforts.
Link to Surfing 4 Peace: https://surfing4peace.org/initiatives